Schoelynck, J. e.a. (2019) Hippos (Hippopotamus amphibius): The animal silicon pump, Science Advances 01 May 2019: Vol. 5, no. 5, eaav0395 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav0395.
While the importance of grasslands in terrestrial silicon (Si) cycling and fluxes to rivers is established, the influence of large grazers has not been considered. Here, we show that hippopotamuses are key actors in the savannah biogeochemical Si cycle. Through a detailed analysis of Si concentrations and stable isotope compositions in multiple ecosystem compartments of a savannah-river continuum, we constrain the processes influencing the Si flux. Hippos transport 0.4 metric tons of Si day−1 by foraging grass on land and directly egesting in the water. As such, they bypass complex retention processes in secondary soil Si pools. By balancing internal processes of dissolution and precipitation in the river sediment, we calculate that hippos affect up to 76% of the total Si flux. This can have a large impact on downstream lake ecosystems, where Si availability directly affects primary production in the diatom-dominated phytoplankton communities.